Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts.— Richard Feyman, "What is Science?", presented at the fifteenth annual meeting of the National Science Teachers Association, in New York City, 1966.

Scientific approaches should be evaluated very carefully, critically and extensively discussed, as well as tested in real life. On that account, please be most sceptical about anything you read on my website. It serves to propose data science ideas I hold or which I was taught. They may sometimes be hard to prove or contrary to common opinion. Occasionally, they are being published in peer-reviewed journals (see my publications) if I decide that my free time is worth the effort. My focus with regard to data science lies on explainable artificial intelligence, data visualization, dimensionality reduction, clustering, knowledge discovery, time series analysis, swarm intelligence, self-organization and emergence, and every algorithm derived from effects found in nature. However, improvement of data science methods and approaches is only my hobby. This is the reason why not every idea, which is or will be presented on this website, is going to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Moreover, not every idea presented here is my own. If you find my ideas worth using please cite me accordingly.

- Methods of dimensionality reduction
- Graph theory with applications of neighborhood graphs
- Focusing projection methods
- Quality assesment is based on Graph theory

- Emergent self-organizing maps and the U-matrix
- Conventional cluster analysis
- Combining dimensionality reduction with cluster analysis
- Quality measurement and Benchmarking of Algorithms

- Subsymbolic classifiers: KNN and Naiv Bayes
- Subsymbolic classifiers: Support Vector Machines and Neural Networks
- Estimation of generalization ability
- Benchmarking

- Knowledge and Knowledge Bases
- Understandability and Post-hoc-Explainers of subsymbolic classifiers
- Symbolic Classifiers
- Building data-driven explainable Artificial Intelligence Systemss

- Transformations
- Bayesian Theorem and its Applications
- Multimodal Distributions and Gaussian Mixture Models
- Skewed Distributions
- Relative Differences

Databionics means the transfer of algorithms for data processing from nature. One major part of databionicsis artificial intelligence (AI). In this context, AI is restricted to seeking, explaining and emulating intelligentbehavior in the form of a computational processes.

- Perceptron Algorithm
- Multilayer Perceptron Network with Backpropagation
- Building a Classifier with MLP-BP
- Outlining Pitfalls and Challenges using ML Theory
- Application: Forecasting with Supervised Artificial Neural Networks

- Types of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM)
- Excurs: Exploring the Brain Using Neuroscience
- Clustering with Online Self-Organizing Maps (SOM)
- Projection and Visualization with Emergent SOM (ESOM)
- The Curse of Dimensionality in High-Dimensional Data and Quality Assesment Of Projections
- Simplified ESOM and Generalized U-matrix for Projections
- Emergence Theory

- Artificial Life and Conway's Game of Life
- Principles of Collective Behavior and Swarm Intelligencen
- Agents, Self-Organization and Schelling's Model
- Ant-based Systems: Ant Colony Optimization and Ant-based Clustering
- Particle Swarm Optimization
- Exploiting Swarm Intelligence using of Game Theory
- Databionic Swarm: Swarm-based Projection and Cluster Analysis of Complex Use Cases

- Biological Foundations
- Strategies for EA
- Mutation & Recombination in the Context of GA
- Applying GA and EA to Optimization Problems
- Distribution Optimization: Outperforming Expectation Maximization Algorithm in Case Of Gaussian Mixtures

- From DNA to Proteins: Process and Measurement Approaches
- Methods for Analyzing Gen Expressions
- Excurs: Gen Self-Regulation and Epigenetics
- Introduction of Biological Databases and Ontologies (Gene Ontology)
- Overrepresentation Analysis and Functional Abstraction
- Excurs: Exploiting a Concept of Information Retrieval for the Clustering of Genes

- Introduction into Time Series Forecasting
- Forecasting with Decomposition Model of Facebook's Prophet
- Forecasting Evaluation Using Machine Learning Theory
- Forecasting with Machine Learning Ensemble

- Markov Chains
- Hidden Markov Model
- Explaining Baum-Welch and Viterbi Algorithm on the Example of Sunspots

- Introduction into Fourier Analysis
- Applying Fourier Analysis to Sunspots
- Windowing Effect
- DFT Spectrum of Common Cases
- Filtering with DFT
- Low-pass Fourier Filtering on the example of High-Frequency Hydrobiologial Data
- Short-Time Fourier Analysis and Heisenberg's Uncertainty
- Gabor Transformation

- Introduction into Time Series Classification
- Swarm-based Cluster Analysis using Dynamic Time Warping

- Temporal Knowledge Discovery by Non-Temporal Inference
- Temporal Inference: Pattern Evolution, Episodes, Sequential Pattern Mining and Association Rules
- Temporal Reasoning: From Allen's Interval Logic to Unification-based Temporal Grammars

Following are some of the lectures and talks I gave during my teachings under the tutelage of Prof. A. Ultsch or in conferences. More general lectures on data science:

- Approaches to Distribution Analysis
- Temporal Knowledge Discovery in Big Data Time Series
- Models of Income Distributions for Knowledge Discovery
- Introduction in the Concept of Swarms

Cluster Analysis and Visualization of such results:

- Projection based Clustering
- Knowledge discovery from low-frequency stream nitrate concentrations: hydrology and biology contributions
- Cluster Analysis of the World Gross-Domestic Product Based on the Emergent Self-Organization of a Swarm
- DataBionicSwarm (DBS)
- Visualization and 3D Printing of Multivariate Data of Biomarkers
- Benchmarking Cluster Analysis Methods using PDE-Optimized Violin Plots

Methods of Dimensionality Reduction and their Evaluation approaches:

- Investigating Quality Measures of Projections for the Evaluation of Distance and Density-based Structures of High-Dimensional Data
- Quality Measures of Projections
- Neighbor Retrieval Visualizer - NeRV

Two brief summaries on knowledge discovery and temporal data mining and basics about high-dimensional data in German: